WHY DO WE EAT?
Everybody needs to eat. In different parts of the world people have different eating habits or tastes and call meals in different way. Food is one of our most important daily needs and it may b eone of the greatest joys of life. The Czech, for instance, love food and they talk about it a lot. The British usually think of eating as a necessity rather than a pleasure. They say „We eat to live, not live to eat.“
Nutrients are the nutritious components in food that and organim use to survive and grow. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, minerals, proteins, vitamins and water. Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of energy. There are 3 kinds of carbohydrates – starch (škrob), sugar and fiber (vláknina). Starch is made from chains of mall sugars and when chains are broken down during digestion (trávení), we get energy. Plant food like cereals, bread, rice or potatoes are good sources of starch. Good sources of fiber are beans, lentils or chickpeas and sugars are found in foods like most fruits and their juices.
Fats can be classified as saturated (nasycený) or unsaturated (nenasycený). Saturated fats are found in meat and whole dairy products like milk or cheese. When we eat too much saturated fats, our chances of getting heart disease increase. Unsaturated fats are usually liquid at room temperature. They are found in most vegetable products and oils. They are considered as healthier, however, like all fats, they give us 9 calories for every gram.
Most all the parts of our body are made from protein: hair, skin, blood, etc. I tis needed for cells to grow. Protein is made of chains of aminoacids. There are a few aminoacids that our body can’t make, so we must get them from the food we eat. They are known as „essential amino acids“. Most food that come from animals, such as fish, chicken, pork, eggs, milk and yoghurt contain all of the essential amino acids.
Minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, Four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen are present in nearly all organic molecules. Many elements are essential in relative quality, they are usually called macrominerals: eg calcium for bone strength, magnesium for processing ATP and increasing flexibility, or phosphorus as a component of bones and for energy processing.
Some vitamins are recognised as essential nutrients, necessary in the diet for good heath.
Healthy eating is not about strčit nutrition philosophies, staing unrealistically thin, or depriving yourself food you love. Rather, it’s about feeling great, having more energy and stabilizing your mood. Healthy eating plate may be composed from healthy protein, fruis of all colors, vegetables of great variety, carbohydrates and a lot of water.
Healthy eating habits can be learned and i tis important to slow down and think about food as nourishment rather than just something to gulp down in between meetings.
Eating with other people has numerous social and emotional benefits – particularly for children. Eating in front of the TV or computer often leads to mindless overeating – so eat with others whenever possible.
Chew your food slowly. We tend to rush through our meals, forgetting to actually taste the flavours and feel the textures of our food.
Choose healthy carbohydrates (beans, fruits and vegetables) and fiber sources, especially whole grains, for long lasting energy.
Listen to your body. Ask yourself if you are really hungry, or have a glass of water to see if you are thirsty instead of hungry.
Eat breakfat, and eat smaller meals throughout the day. Avoid eating at night.
Enjoy healthy fats and avoid unhealthy fats.
Add calcium for strong and healthy.
Limit sugar and salt.
Unhealthy diets are linked to four of the world’s top ten leading risk factors causing death: high blood pressure, high blood glucose, overweight and obesity and high cholesterol. Inadeguate consumption (spotřeba) of fruits and vegetables increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and some cancers and accounts for some 1,7 million deaths a year. Dietary salt consumption is an important determinant of blood pressure level and of overal cardiovascular risk – high blood pressure is the number one risk factor for death around the world. High consumption of saturated and trans-fats is linked to heart disease.
Unhealthy diet is the diet that is high in sugars, saturated and trans-fats, low figre foods and high-sugar drinks. High intake of fast food and processed foods increase health risk.
Though the Czech Republic is known mainly for its architecture and beer, i tis also the home to some very tasty food. For Czechs i tis customary to eat a light meal in the morning and evening, and the biggest meal at lunch. Czech cuisine is often charakterised as heavy food and lack of begetables. A typical breakfast consists of yogurt, bread, and perhaps some salam or cheese. Supper is often a cold plat of ham, cheese and bread. All nations have their pub food, and the Czechs are no exception. Typical fare (pokrm) would be ‚svíčková‘ (roast sirloin in sour cream sauce). This meal is a combination of pieces of sirloin covered in a sweet creamy sauce, and served with sour cream on a slice of lemon, cranberry sauce and dumplings.
Roasted pork is the national dish. I tis served with sauerkraut and potato dumplings. Goulash, the Czech version of the Hungarian dish, features equal portions of beef and onions cooked with spices and served with dumplings.
Probably the most significant difference between Czechs and the rest of the world is beer. The Czech Republic is number one in beer consumption, overaging a half liter a day for every man, woman and child.
Traditional British breakfast consists of a glass of fruit juice, cereal, fried bacon and eggs, sausages, beans and fried tomatoes, eand is eaten on weekends. In Britain the midday mea lis lunch, which is a quick meal consisting of soup, salad, sandwich or a light snack. The traditional British teatime at 5 pm consist of cakes, biscuits and of course tea, which in England is drunk with milk and sugar. About 6 o’clock most families have their main meal – diner. It may be cooked or cold depending on the time of the year. They have often sausages, potatoes or chips. They are used to eat a desert after each diner.
The stereotype is fish and chips served as a take away.
In America, breakfast and lunch are usually eaten on the run. People have yogurt or a pastry in the morning and than fast food at lunch. The evening is when Americans have more time to spend on eating and that is when the biggest meal of the day is usually eaten. Americans work long hours so often they are too tired to cook, and bring home Chinese food or have a pizza delivered instead. Americans love to eat our. Italian food is very popular and Mexican food i salso common. And yes, here are hamburgers. But a proper hamburger is not what you find at McDonald’s.
If we want to go out and eat in a great restaurant, it is good idea to book a table. In the restaurant the waiter welcomes us and leads us to our reserved table, which should be already set. At our place there will be a plate. On its right there is knife and a spoon, on the left there is a fork. Above the plate could be also a teaspoon. In the upper left corner there should be a glass of water. Ther should also be a napkin on the table.
We have already mentioned that the water would show us our table. Than he offers us the menu and waits until we have made our selections. Depending on our choice he first brings us the drinks and the appetizers. Then comes the soup and the main dish. For variety we can order a vegetable salad or a dessert.
The waiter then brings the bill. We pay, add a tip (spropitné) for a good service and then we can get going with our other tasks.
Cooking is the act of preparing food for consumption with the use of heat. Cooking techniques and ingredients vare widely across the world, reflecting unique environmental, economic and cultural traditions and trends. There are many methods of cooking – include baking, reasting, frying, grylling or boiling. Er can also modify ingredients by different ways – eg to chop, cut, dice, peet, skin or slice.
When we want to prepare an oatmeal (ovesná kaše) we will need oat flakes and water or milk. I rather cook it with milk, it has better taste. Firstly, you pour milk into a pot and heat it. When the milk is boiling, you add oat flakes and blend it. After a minute you can give the pot down from your cooker and the oatmeal is done. According to your taste, you can give yogurt and some fruit on it.