The United Kingdom – maturitná téma (angličtina) (5)

 

 Téma: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

 Predmet: Angličtina

 Zaslal(a): Markét

 

 

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and North Ireland lies on the British Isles. It’s situated in the Northwest of the European continent. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. It covers an area of about 243 000 km2, so it’s about 3 times bigger than the CR. The UK is made up of four historic parts; England, Wales, Scotland and North Ireland. The capital is London.

 

Landscape

The landscape is quite varied. It’s mostly covered by lowlands, but there are also some highlands, mostly in Scotland and in west Wales. The highest peak, Ben Nevis with 1345 meters, lies in the Grampian Mountains in Scotland. Land, where kilts were born, is also rich for other nature points of interest, mostly lakes. The famous ones are Loch Ness and Loch Fyne.

 

Climate

The British Isles have a temperate maritime climate. The winters are mild, and summers are hot and humid, but anyway, the weather in the UK is usually unpredictable.

 

Population

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and North Ireland has more than 66 million inhabitants. It’s home for people all over the world, besides the British, Welsh, Scots and Irish, there live a lot of Asians especially Indians.

 

Politics

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, what makes her the longest-serving current head of state. The Parliament of the United Kingdom meetthe s in the Palace of Westminster and has two houses: an elected House of Commons and an appointed House of Lords. All bills were given Royal Assent before becoming law. The position of the prime minister belongs to the person most likely a to command the cothe confide,nce of the House of Commons.  There are three parties in the UK; The Conservatives, the Labour Party, The Liberals.

 

Places of interest

Britain has many interest spost, tourists can visit. First place is London, with amazing architecture and interesting hidden parts. England is also famous for its university towns; Oxford with Oxford University and Cambridge with Cambridge University. In the centre of the country is Stratford Upon Avon, the birthplace of a famous writer William Shakespeare.  Next, a remarkable place in heart of England is Birmingham, such a beautiful city, we can’t miss during our stay in GB. Another interesting place to visit can be Liverpool or Manchester especially for fans of football. Liverpool is also a city, where the Beatles were formed. Great Britan has also many nature spots, which are worth to explore for example Snowdonia National park or Lake District. While cities all around the UK are interesting as well. Belfast, Edinburgh or Bristol can be a great choice. In the south, there is one more mysterious place which is Stonehenge, a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, consisting of a ring of standing stones.

 

History

The Celtic peoples begin to arrive and establish their culture 600 AC. About 650 years later the Roman Empire invades Britain and makes Britannia a Roman province. And 50 AD the Romans found the city of Londinium (which later becomes London). In 450 AD the Anglo-Saxons begin to settle in Britain. They rule much of the land until the Vikings arrive. In 1215 King John is forced to sign the Magna Carta. 1337 is a year when The Hundred Years’ War with France begins. It will last until 1453. Just two years later the War of the Roses began. In 1558 Elizabeth I become Queen and the Elizabethan Era begins. In the second part of the 18th century, the Industrial Revolution begins in England. The 20th century was the century of the first and the second world war. In 1952 Elizabeth II is crowned queen.






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