Canada is official name of state. It comes from indigenous world „katana“ which means „village“ or „settlement“. Canada is the second largest state by area in the world after Russia. Area of Canada is less than 10 milion square kilometres, but population is just over 36 milion people. So, dencity is very low only 3,6 inhabitants per square kilometre. Many of Canadians lives within 200 miles of the border with the USA. Capital is Ottawa, but this city is not the biggest.
Canada has a few national sombols: for example beaver and maple leaf. Maple leaf is national emblem. Red 11-pointed maple leafhas been in the flag of Canada since 1965.
Canada is located in the north of the continent of North America. It borders only with the USA in the south and in the north-west. This border is 8 893 kilometres long. Canada is washed by 3 oceans: by Pacific Ocean in the west, by Arctic Ocean in the north and in the east by Atlantic Ocean.
Canada is made up of several islands and mainland. Canada surface consists of mountains, lowland plains, forests, rivers and lakes.
Mountains stretch Canada along the west coast from the north to the south. They are called American Cordillera including Rocky Mountains, Mackenzie Mountains and other ranges. The highest mountain of Canada Mount Logan is located in Saint Elias Mountains in Yukon and it is nearly 6 000 metres high. In the north, south, east ant in the centre of Canada are lowlands, plains, vast forests and permafrost. Forest grow in the south while permafrost you can find in the north and on islands.
Nearly half of the country occupied by the Canadian Shield which stretches north and west from the Atlantic coast up to the Arctic Ocean. The Canadian Shield is made up arctic islands, hard rock, hills, lakes and swamps. This area is not good for agriculture, but its richness lies in its forests and minerals, like gold, silver, zinc, copper, uranium and iron and its waterpower.
West of the Shield are plains. The southern part is known as the Prairies, which are the great Canadian grainfield. In this area crops are grown like wheat, barley, rye or flax.
The best part of Canada for agriculture is the eastern coast. It includes New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. There are wheat fields in Newfoundland.
Good conditions for agriculture has the Great Lakes region. The Great Lakes make up border between the USA and Canada. Four of five Great Lakes are shared by Canada and the USA all but Michigan, which lies whole in the USA. Canada has more than 2 milion lakes, but only 563 lakes are bigger than 100 square kilometres.
There is also a lot of rivers. The longest river is the Mackenzie River with a length of 1 748 kilometres. Body of water covers an 9 % area of Canada. It is one of reasons, why Canada has the biggest suppliesof fresh water in the world.
In the north is arctic and sub-arctic climate. But in the south is continental climate. Summers are longer than in the north and warm enought to grow some crops like wheat or barley and raise beef cattle.
Canada is member of British Commonwealth of nations. Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy with the monarch of UK as its head of Canada. Currently Queen Elizabeth II. is the head of Canada. The Queen is represented by Guvernor General when she is absence.
Canada is a federadion made up of 10 provinces: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec and Saskatchewan and 3 territories: Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Every province and territory has own goverment which is responsible for specific areas like education, health and local services while the central, or federal, goverment decides matters of national interest, such as defence, foreign affairs and criminal law.
Canada has a parliamentary system. So, the state power is divided into three branches: executive, legislative and judiciary. The executive branch is composed of the monarch, the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. Legislavive power makes up the Parliament. It consists of the House of Commons and the Senate. House of Commons is more powerful than Senate. And the last branch is judiciary. Supreme Court is the highest court in Canada.
Canada is multicultural country. English and French are two biggest nations who live in Canada. So, Canada is bilingual state. It means that there are two official languages: English and French. Frenchmen live mainly in province Quebec. In Canada problem is between French-speaking and English-speaking people. In 1995 referendum was in Quebec if they wanted to stay in Canada or make up new state. Most of them wanted to remain part of Canada.
But there are a lot of numerous national minorities like Germanis, Italians, Asian nations or ingigenous inhabitants (First Nations and Inuit).
Aboriginal people in Canada: Three big groups of indigenous people live in Canada.
Inuit are the first of whom I would like to speak. They live in the northernmost parts of Canada, in Alaska, in Greenland and several Inuit in Siberia. In the past Inuit went across the Bering Sea when it was frozen, from Siberia to the north of North America and back. Thera were harsh living conditions, but Inuit adapted to those conditions. Since 1999 they have had own self-governing territory, called Nunavut, within the Canadian federation. But many Inuit live in the northern third of Quebec and this area is called Nunavik.
The second indigenous people are First Nations or Natives. They live more in the south than Inuit. When Europeans came to the Canada, Natives helped them. After the Europeans became stronger than Natives, Europeans began Natives close to reservations. From the time onwards, the only way that Natives could live equally with the Europeans was by adopting the European culture.
Metis are the third indigenous people who live in Canada. Metis are mixed race descendants of unions between generally First Nations women and French or British men.
Many people are believers. Two thirds of Canadians identify as Christian. Most of them are Catolics, but nearly 12% Canadians profess they are Protestant.
Capital of Canada is Ottawa, but it is not the biggest city in Canada. Toronto is the biggest city followed Montreal. Montreal is mostly French-speaking city situated in Quebec. Another big city is Vancouver.
The first European explorer who discovered Canada was John Cabot in 1497. He was an Italian but in the services of the English. After discovery this new land French and English explorers explored during the late 15th and throughout the 16th century.
The first pernament European settlement was established by Frenchmen in the St. Lawrence valley early the 17th century. After this there was established many settlement by Frenchmen and Englishmen. These settlements were founded mainly because of beavers. During 17th century was the beaver trade in Europe. Beaver fur was used for hats which were very fashionable in Europe. So, hunderts of men went to the Canada for hunting beavers. People traded beads, pots and knives for beaver.
In the second half of the 18th century a war was between French and English who took over the whole Canada. In 1759 English conquered Quebec and in 1763 were French totally defeaded. After 1763 was Canada British colony. But it was made the first dominion within the British Empire a century later. It means that Canada became self-governing state but still under the domination of the British Empire. Since 1931 Canada has become independent country but the head of state has stayed the British monarch.
Canada is very highly developed country with high living standart.
Canada has vast natural resources. It is among the world‘s chief producers of natural gas, oil, gold, copper, iron ore, nickel, potash, uranium, aluminium and zinc, along with wood and water. In Canada vast forests grow, so there are produced wood products like timber or paper. There is still a wealth of game: fur beavers are particularly economically very important. Canada‘s fishing grounds, mainly in Newfoundland, are extremely productive.
Agriculture also plays a big role. The typical Canada‘s product is maple syrup. Wheat and barley are cultivated in farmlands. Huge quantities of grain are delivered in the USA. Canadian economy is generally very interconnected with the USA because 80% of Canada‘s export go to the USA.
Canada is a great sporting nations. There are very popular basketball, curling, American football and ice-hockey along with lacrosse which are official national sport. Other sports that many people make are tennis, soccer, golf, snowboarding, skiing, swimminng, baseball and canoing. But the first canoes were used for hunting, fishing and travelling, not for fun.
Basketball and lacrosse were invented by Canadian. But there is one big difference. Basketball was invented by white man (James Naismith) in 1891 but lacrosse was invented by the First Nations more than 500 years ago.
Ice-hockey is the most popular sport in Canada. Canada‘s nation ice-hockey team belongs to the world leaders. They won a lot of prizes. The latest prize was from World Ice-hockey Championship at this year(2016).
Canada has participated in many sporting competions. The famous are the Olympic Games. Canada has participated in almost every Olympic Games since 1900. Canada has hosted three times the Olimpic Games: the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary and the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver.
There is also popular going in national parks. People go riding, hiking and camping here.
Canada is multicultural country. There are many nations(viz Population)
Canada has a few national sombols: for example beaver and maple leaf. Maple leaf is national emblem. Red 11-pointed maple leafhas been in the flag of Canada since 1965.(viz basic facts)
Fauna + flora:
In Canada 42 national parks are existing at the moment. In these parks wildlife is found. In the arctic areas polar bears, polar foxes and seal are seen there. Reindeers, polar foxes, caribou, mooses and wolves live in tundra. Animals like beavers, coyotes, raccoons, deers, bisons and golden eagels live on the south of Canada.
Places of interest:
Nationals parks: People can admire untouched wildlife. For example the Wood Buffalo National Park. This park is the largest park in Canada and it protects bisons.
Niagara Falls: Niagara Falls is the collective name for three waterfalls. Niagara Falls make up border between Canada and the USA. These Falls are the most famous in the continent of North America.
Ottawa: The capital of Canada is picturesque city. Some bildings are built in Romantic or other styles of architecture such as the Parliament Building’s gothic revival achitecture. In Ottawa lots of educational buildings are. For example: the National Galery of Canada, the Canadian Museum of History and the Canadian War Museum.
Toronto: Toronto the biggest city of Canada is centre of science and culture. In the world Toronto is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities. There are many museums, theatres or galleries but the CN Tower is a major tourist attraction in Toronto.