Great Britain – maturitná téma (angličtina)


 Téma: The Great Britain

 Predmet: Angličtina

 Zaslal(a): Dandushkaaa


General Information

  • The United Kingdom is situated in north-west Europe on the island
  • It consists of 4countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Nortern Ireland
  • Area: 244 000 square kilometers
  • Population: about 60milion
  • The UK is a monarchy, now a monarchy is Queen Elizabeth II.
  • Climate: temperate(mírné), oceanic + Gulf Stream= changeble(měnitelné) and wet weather
  • Languages: English, Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Irish Gaelic
  • National anthem(hymna): God save a Queen



  • 4parts: England (London), Scotland (Edinburgh), Wales ( Cardiff) and Nortern Ireland (Belfast)
  • The landscape of England: small hills, fields, pastures(pastviny), lowlands, very green

Scotland: is more mountainous( Highlands), the highest peak is Ben Nevis( 1343m)

  • Rivers: The longest river in the UK is the Severn. The second longest is The Thames, which flows through London
  • Lakes:The largest lake by volume(podle objemu) is Loch Ness in Scotland. The largest lake by area(podle oblasti) is Lough Neagh in Nortern Ireland. The most beautiful is the area of the Lake District on the north of England


Places of interest

  • Houses of Parliament– political centre of the UK (the House of Lordsand the House of Commons)
  • Big Ben– bell in the clock tower, BBC time signal
  • Tower Bridge- is a beautiful bridge in London over(přes) the river Thames. It’s close to (je blízko k)Tower of London from which it takes its name. It has become in iconic symbol of London
  • The Double-decker- is a bus that has two storeys(podlaží) a „checks“. They have become a national symbol of England and the majority(většina) of buses in London are double-deckers
  • The Kilt- is a knee-length skirt wearing by men and boys on Scotland. It’s most often made of wollen cloth in a tertan pattern(s kostkovaným vzorem). The kilt is most often worn on formal occasions(slavnostní příležitosti)
  • Saint Paul’s Cathedral– the original church was rebuilt by Sir Christophes Wren after the Great Fire of London on 1666. Baroque Styles. Whispering Gallery- remarkable(pozoruhodná) acoustics
  • Tower of London– started by William the Congueror(Norman Invasion in 1066), served as a royal home, a prison, an execution site(popravčí místnost), an observatory, a royal mint( ražebna mincí). Now it’s a museum- Crown Jewel are kept there
  • Westminster Abbey– founded by Edwart the Confesor on 11th century coronations(koronuvace) and royal funerals(pohřby) are held(konají) there.Poet’s Corner-tombstones(náhrobky) and monuments of famous poets(básníků)
  • Buckingham palace-London home of kings and queen, the Changing of the Guards(střídání stráží) is quite popular with tourists, Queen Victoria Monument in front of the palace
  • Trafalgare Square– place of political demonstrations, commensurates naval Victory(příměří námořního vítězství) of Admiral Lord Nelson(1806)- Nelson’s Column, fountains,pigeons,National Gallery
  • Piccadily Circus (The west end)- the busiest and the woisiest place in London, centre of entertainmentm famous for colourful advertisements(barevné reklamy), Eros- the Greek God of Love at the top of the fountains
  • The West End- Covent Garden- famous market, Pigmalion,

– Oxford Street- shopping

– Soho- nightlife, Carnaby Street-shopping

– Bloomsbury- intelectual centre, Virginia Woolf

  • The East End– slums(ubohé obydlí), poverty(chudoba) and crime, docklands,immigrants, Jack the Ripper
  • North London– Camden Town- punks,shopping, popular weekend markets
  • South London– Elizabethan theatres were located there Shakespeare’s Globe
  • Museum and Galleries– The Tate gallery(Tate Britainand, Tate Modern)

–  Madame Tussaud’s- wax figures(voskové figuríny)

– Victoria and Albert Museum (fine and decorative art)(výtvarné)

– British Museum, Natural History Museum

  • Parks in London– Hyde park- speaker’s corner

– Green Park, Saint James’s Park, Kensington Gardens,

– Regent’s Park-London Zoo


Places interest of UK

Canterbury– southern England

-famous for its cathedral

-seat of the Archibishop

-Thomas Becket was murdered there

-pilgrimage- reflected(odráží) in Geofrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales(příběhy)


Brighton– southern England

-popular beach resort

-place of „wild“ parties

– „centre“ of homosexuals

-famous for the Royal Pavilion


Stonehenge– southern England

-close to Salisburg on Salisburg Plain

-prehistoric monument dating from about 2 800B.C.

-might have been a place of religious rituals


Plymouth– southern England

-historic seaport

-departure point of the Mayflower- Pilgrim Fathers (1620)


Bath– Southern England

-Roman health spa with warm springs (prameny)


Stradford-upon-Avon– central England

-the birthplace and the burial(pohřebiště) place of William Shakespeare


Oxford-central England

-name: ox+ford

-the seat of the oldest English university

-fouded in the 12th century

-Harry Potter was filmed there- dining hall


Cambridge-central England

-name: came+  bridge

-the seat of the 2nd oldest university in Britain

-founded in 13th century


Liverpool– northern England

-industrial city (technické)

-important port

-home of the Beatles


Hadrian’s Wall– northern England

-built around AD 122 by Roman Emperoro Hadrian

-built to protect(chránit) England’s northern boundary(hranici)



-the capital city of Scotland

-famous for its castle


Loch Ness-Scotland

-the most famous lake in the Highland region

-unconfirmed(nepotvrzený) reports of a Loch Ness monster since the 13th century

-popular with tourists


Cardiff– Wales

-the capital of Wales

-indutrial and financial centre

-famous for its castle-built in 1100s


Belfast- nothern Ireland

-the capital city of Northern Ireland

-industrial  port



Giant’s Causeway– northern Ireland

-natural wonder of the northern coust

-it is formed by hexagonal columns(sloupy) of rock



  • first settlers- Celts, Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Jutes, Vikings
  • 1066 battle of Hasting- the Norman Conquest, strong feudal state, french influence(vliv)
  • Tudor dynasty: Henry VIII.- 1534 reformation (Head of church(-církve) of England, woman can be queen, divorces) + his doughter Elizabeth I.- Virgin queen, flourishing(zkvétající) of culture, theatre, literature, sea power, colonianism
  • Victorian Era: -19th Climax for British Empire,industrial progress(technický pokrok), mass production x poor conditions of workers, largest number of colonies
  • After WW II.- British Empire changed into Common wealth of independent vations (54members), common values and goals
  • in 1973 joined EU



  • Queen Elizabeth II.- is a formal head of the constitutional monarchy and the gavernment is responsible(odpovídá) to her for its decisions(rozhodnutí), She is also Head of the Protestant Church(církev) of England
  • David Cameron is currently Prime Minister, His seat is in downing street 10
  • many decisions for the UK are made in London through the Parliament consisting of House of Commons and House of Lords
  • Scotland has its own parliament in Edinburg and there is a National Assembly for Wales in Cardiff


Life in Great Britain

The British: love of independence, individualism, respect for privacy, tolerance for differences, unique sense of humour, conservative, reserved, patriots

  • Family: a very good standart of living, high mobility, high divorce rate
  • Housing: terraced, semi-detached, detached houses, blocks of flats (řadový, dvojdomek, rodinné domy, panelové domy)
  • Daily meals: breakfast (traditional x ordinary-obyčejné), elevences(about 11o’clock), lunch (lighter,, fish and chips shops, fast food, greasy spoon), afternoon tea (children, tourist), dinner (main meal) + supper(večeře)
  • Drinks: beer, soft drinks, wine, cider, whisky
  • Sports and pasttimes: football, cticket, rugby, hiking, watching horse-racing, going for a pint, doing DIY


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