Téma: The European Union
In 1951 when the Treaty of Paris was signed. It was start of European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).
Members were: Belgium,West Germany, Luxembourg, France, Italy, and the Netherlands.
ECSC community was successful, so in 1957 were signed Treaties of Rome – creating the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and the European Economic Community (EEC). These communities were connected with economic cooperation too.
In 1967 the three European communities were merged into the European Community – the Merge treaty. From this point on, there was a single European Commission, Council of the EU, and the European Parliament.
In 1992, The Treaty of Maastricht. There were other types of cooperation – defense and others. European Union (EU) was created.
In 2002, a single currency of EURO was made. 12 EU member states started to use them and they replaced the national currency. Now there are 19 EU member states who use it. The aera is called Eurozone.
Other 4 states which are not in EU use it – San Marino, Monte Negro, Vatican city, Monako
There have been six waves of accession:
1973 – Denmark, Ireland, the UK
1981 – Greece
1986 – Spain, Portugal
1995 – Austria, Finland, Sweden
2004 – wave of new members – the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Cyprus
2007 – Bulgaria, Romania
2013 – Croatia
Today, the EU has 28 Member States.
The headquarters of its institutions are in Brussels, Strasbourg, Luxembourg.
The main institutions of the EU:
The European Commission (main part in Brussels, also in Luxemburg and Berlaymont) – There are 28 independent members (one from each member state), they care about legislation. The president is Juncker from Luxembourg.
The Council of the EU (Strasbourg) is the main decision-making institution.
It consists of the ministers of the 28 member states, who are responsible for the matters of farming, industry, transport, and other.
The presidency of the council changes every six months.
European Parliament (in Strasburg) is the assembly of the representatives of the Union citizens. It has the power of control over the Union’s activities. The MEPs are divided according to their political orientation, not nationality.
The Court of Justice (in Luxembourg) make sure that Community law is good interpreted and effectively applied. It deals with complaints.
The Court of Auditors controls the finances of the EU.
European Central Bank (in Frankfurt) has an authority for the EU monetary policy.
The aim of the EU:
Help the cooperation among (mezi) the member states in economics and social issues, foreign policy, security and defense, judicial matters and others
The advantages of the EU:
- borders relaxed
- customs and immigration agreements modified
- greater freedom to live, work, and study in any of the member states
Disadvantages of the EU:
Lost individual development
Flag – The background of the flag is blue, and on the flag is circle of 12 stars.
The blue represents the west.
12 means completeness – 12 month in year,……
The stars symbolized solidarity and harmony among the states in Europa.
The circle symbolized the unity of European states.
The flag was designed in 1955.
1985 adopted EEC this flag.
Anthem is called Ode to Joy.
The anthem of the European Union comes from the Ninth symphony composed by Ludwig Van Beethoven.
Euro – it´s used in 19 countries of the EU – these states are called Eurozone. Coins and banknotes (bankovky) has been used since 2002.
Uses Euro – they aren´t in EU
Monaco, Monte Negro, San Marino, Vatican City
United in diversity – it´s a motto of the European Union.
It means that Europeans wanted peace and prosperity, they tried to archieve this goal thanks to EU, and they learn a lot of about foreign cultures, traditions and languages.
Europe day – the first idea behind the European Union was first put forward on 9 May 1950 by French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman. That is why this day is celebrated as the EU´s birthday. Every year this day is found motto for new year on poster.