Téma: The systems of government
Zaslal(a): Natálie V.
- United Kingdom is constitutional monarchy-it has queen as a head of the whole country. The queen is Elisabeth II. Since 1952. She represents the nation, but has mainly a ceremonial role, most of her functions are formal and symbolic. The crown is hereditary. The next one on the reign should be Charles, but it is generally thought that he will be skipped and William (his son) will be the next.
- The one with the main power is called Prime Minister. At the moment his name is Boris Johnson. Before him, there was Theresa May. He has official residence in 10, Downing street.
- Legislative power is represented by the two chambers in Houses of Parliament. The seat of UK’s Parliament is Palace of Westminster. Parliament consists of two parts: The House of Lords (upper chamber, nowadays about 700 members, chosen by queen) and The House of Commons (lower chamber, more powerful, 650 members, elected every 4-5 years).
- The executive power is represented by government and the Prime Minister. It is the organ that is holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
- Judicial power is based on a system of precedent (previous case that may be followed in similar cases) and common law and there is no written constitution.
- UK is also establisher of Commonwealth of Nations since 1931, they are independent but queen is a formal head of the states (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa).
- United States is a federal presidential constitutional republic consisting of 50 states. The head of the state is president, at the moment his name is Donald Trump. He serves a 4year term, may be elected just twice. He’s also the head of federal government, which is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism and it consists of 3 branches:
- Legislative-represented by bicameral Congress, made up from Senate (100 members) and House of Representatives (435 members), makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties
- Executive-represented by the president, the Cabinet and the federal departments
- Judicial-appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate, consists of the Supreme Court that evaluates laws.
- Constitution is written = Bill of rights, it’s the oldest in the world which we still use.
- There are two main parties: Republican Party (considered to be central right or conservative) and Democratic Party (central left or liberal).
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