USA – maturitná téma (angličtina) (6)

 

 Téma: The USA

 Predmet: Angličtina

 Zaslal(a): Denisa Leščuková

 

BASIC INFORMATION

  •  location, states, borders, climate, mountain ranges, lakes and rivers

The USA is located in North America form Atlantic Ocean to Pacific ocean. The USA has borders with Canada on northern side and from the southern side has with Mexico.

The USA has is federation with 50 states, Alaska and Hawaii Islands two states which aren’t in USA. Alaska is very north of continent and Hawaii Islands are in the Pacific Ocean.

Climate in the north is mild. The southern part of US is situated in subtropical zone. Florida and Hawaii Islands are in tropical zone. Alaska is the coldest because it lies in artic zone.

The USA has a varied landscape. In the West there is Sierra Nevada, the Cascade range, Cordilleras –part of Rocky mountains and Great Canyon. In the middle there is Interior Plains (velké prerie). The East is covered by lowlands  f.e. – Mississippi lowland, but there is too Apalachian Mountains. The highest peak is Mt. McKinley.

The longest river is Mississippi – the father of water. Other rivers – The Ohio, The Missouri, The Arkansas are tributaries of Mississippi. The Colorado, The Columbia, The Niagara. The Hudson River flows into great lakes. Other lakes – Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario.

 

POPULATION

  • “melting pot”, ethnic groups, languages, national flag and anthem

The number of inhabitants is around 300 milion. The country is third the most populous in the world. The American population is very different, there are immigrants, true natives, which is includes Aleuts, Eskimos and Native Americans. White people and African American, Hispanic and Asian people.  There are many nationalities, so sometimes The USA called melting pot.

Official language is English. But because of many nationalities there are many different languages. Number of people speak Spanish.

Religion – two religion – protestant and Catholic., some othe religions – Buddhists, Hindus, Muslims, Christian.

The national flag consists of 50 stars which symbolising number of states and 13 stripes – 6 white and 7 red – it symbolize 13 original colonies.  Sometimes called – Old Glory or Stars and Stripes.

The national anthem is called The Star – Spangled Banner.

 

ECONOMY

  • products, trading partners, companies, agriculture, raw materials
    trading partners: Germany, China

Companies: Apple, Intel, McDonald, KFC, Google

Agriculture: corn, soybean, tobacco, tomatoes, oranges, apples

Raw materials: oil, coal, gold, platinum, petroleum and natural gas in Alaska

Chemical industries, aeronautics, computer companies, space technology

 

POLITICAL SYSTEM

  • President, House of Representatives, Senate

President of The USA is Donald Trump. He is elected for four years and he can be elected only twice.

The USA is federation of 50 states. The capital is Washington DC.

The federal government has three branches- executive power, judiciary power, legislative power.

The Congress is consists of two houses:  Houses of Representatives and the Senate. They are drafting and passing of laws.  The Federal government controls native taxes and the armed forces.

 

HISTORY

  • original inhabitants, first explorers

Icelandic Viking were probably the first explorers, but they didn’t establish any settlements so the first inhabitants were the Indians – native Americans, because Christopher Columbus arrived in America 1492 and he thought that he is in India.

America is called after Amerigo Vespucci, Italian explorer, who made voyages to South America.

– first colonies, the War of Independence
In 1607 the first English colony was founded in Virginia in Jamestown. Pilgrim fathers from the ship Mayflower establish settlement at Plymouth on 1620. Pennsylvania was settled by Quakers – religious group. After the decisive war between France and England because of taxes, it became war of Independence in 1773 by Boston tea party. People dressed as Indians trew tea boxes into the Boston harbour. On 4th July the Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson, was signed. Between 1775 and 1783 was War of Independence fought.

– the Civil War
The Civil war was between North and South America because of economic and political differences. The North wanted to abolish slavery, and it became when North won the war. 1866 the defeat southern planters founded a secret organization Ku Klux Klan.

– important dates in 20th century – 1917, 1929, 1941, Cold War,
1917 – USA entered World war I.

1929 – the stock market crashed in NY – Great depression to unemployment and poverty.

1941 – Japaneese attacked Pearl Harbour in the Hawaii and USA entered World war II. -> atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Cold War – it wasn’t war, SSSR and US they tried protected themselves with huge amount of nuclear weapons, which means warming to the opponent-

– 60s – 1963, 1969, Civil Rights movement
1963 – John Fitzgerald Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.

1969 – astronaut Neil Armstrong landed on the moon

– 70s – Watergate, Vietnam
War in Vietnam because of Gulf. The USA takes part there.

– Terrorist attacks
Terrorist attack on Twins in New York.

 

PLACES OF INTERESTS

–  New York is sometimes called as big apple or that city never sleeps.

It divided of 5 parts – Manhattan, The Bronx, The Queens, Brooklyn and Richmond. New York is situated on Hudson River. It is centre of financial and art world. It is the largest city in the USA.

The Dutch were the first colonize. They built the Wall Street. Manhattan – there is a famous street – Fifth Avenue – luxurious shops , hotels and offices. There is located the Empire state building.

Times square is a centre of entertainment. There are department stores, restaurants, shops, nightclubs, hotels. Wall street – is financial centre of the world. There are banks and stock exchange.
The statue of Liberty – given by France in 19th century.  She has a tablet with the date of signed declaration and in the right hand a torch. It is symbol of freedom and hope.

–  Washington D.C.
It is capital city of the USA. It lies on Potomac River and has 4 sections – northeast, northwest, southeast and southwest. Its centre of legislative, administrative and judicial function.

The Capitol is seat of houses of Representatives and the Senate. Nearby is the White house. Pentagon – military forces.

The Mall is long park area ending at the Washington monument.

The Lincoln Memorial  – monument of Abraham Lincoln, where he is sitting on chair.

In the Arlington National Cemetery there  are buried veterans.

Famous museums – National air and space museum, Smithsonian Institute, the National Gallery of art.

Constitution gardens – beautiful park.

– National Parks
Yosemite, Seqoia national park, Yellowstone, Grand canyon, Everglades, Death Valley, Joshua national park

Boston – famous harbour where was Boston tea party in 1773

– Florida – there is Kennedy space centre – NASA space shuttles and rockets are sending into space, the national park Everglades, where is alligators, plants and many animals.

New Orleans – its important port town, it is home of jazz and birth place of Louis Armstrong.
Chicago- there is the tallest skyscraper Sears Tower (443m), is situated near the Lake Michigan, it is industrial centre, the busiest airport – O’ Hare airport.

 

Detroit in Michigan, centre of car industry

 

San Francisco – built on a bay, prison Alcatraz, typical means of transport – cable cars, famous part Chinastown, Golden Gate Bridge

 

Los Angeles – represents American films, many famous people live there in Hollywood or Beverly Hills, the city of angels, semi tropical climate, palm trees and beaches

Pollution and traffic jam because of complicated freeways and many private cars.

 

Grand Canyon – in Arizona, there flows Colorado River, there are long trails for tourists, it is symbol of Wild West.






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