Téma: Traditions, Holidays and Festivals
Zaslal(a): Tomáš Runštuk
Most of the festival was originally celebrated only by Christians, but today is celebrated throughout the world. There are many differences in the celebration of traditions around the world. Every country has their own national holidays. But there are some holidays which are celebrated in most countries.
First of them is Christmas. Christmas is celebrated in the end of the year concretely between 24th and 26th December. It is a Christian tradition of celebrating birth of Jesus Christ. Family is together and on the 24th is the Christmas Eve, when is special dinner. But now, there are some differences. In USA are presents given by Santa Claus on 25th in the morning, in UK it is same but presents are given by Father Christmas. And in the Czech Republic are presents given by Ježíšek (or small Jesus) on 24th after the dinner.
The next holidays is Easter. The date is changeable and it depends on the moon. It is Christian tradition, too and celebrate resurrection the Jesus. In USA small children look for coloured eggs for example in parks. In Czech Republic women and girls colour eggs and mem sing carols and beat girls by whips to be healthy.
New Year’s Day is on the 1st January. People make fireworks and make resolutions to the future.
And now something about national holiday in USA.
On 3. Monday in January is Martin Luther King’s day, which celebrate his birth. He fight for rights of blacks and he received the Nobel Peace Prize.
Washington’s Birthday is a holiday on 3. Monday in February. He was birth on 22nd February. It is also now known as Presidents’ Day and is often an occasion to remember all the presidents, not just George Washington.
Memorial Day is on last Monday of May and it is for remembering people who died in American Civil War in 1868.
Independence Day is a federal holiday commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence 240 years ago in 1776 on July 4 by the Continental Congress. It declared that the thirteen American colonies regarded themselves as a new nation, the United States of America, and were no longer part of the British Empire.
Columbus Day is a national holiday in many countries in the Americas and elsewhere which officially celebrates the anniversary of Christopher Columbus’ arrival in the Americas on October 12, 1492. The landing is celebrated as “Columbus Day” in the United States
Halloween (a contraction of All Hallows’ Evening) is holiday on 31st October. It was day for remembering to dead people but nowadays it is about scaring people and making costumes and masks. Children go around the neighbourhood and get sweetmeats. Adults make big parties.
Thanksgiving Day is a national holiday celebrated in Canada and in the United States. It was originally celebrated as a day of giving thanks for the blessing of the harvest and of the preceding year. Thanksgiving is celebrated on the 2. Monday of October in Canada and on the 4. Thursday of November in the United States. Although Thanksgiving has historical roots in religious and cultural traditions, it has long been celebrated as a secular holiday as well. For Americans it is more important that Christmas. It is tradition that the whole family get together and eat turkey.
In Czech Republic are several important holidays too. In contrast with USA we can have holidays on the weekend, so we can lose some free days.
One of them is Victory Day on 8th May. It celebrate the end of the second world war in Czechoslovakia.
The day of burning Jan Hus is on 6th July. He was a Bohemian religious thinker and reformer.
The day of fighting for freedom and democracy is on 17th November. It is celebrate the Velvet revolution which was a non-violent transition of power in Czechoslovakia. . It ended with the fall of the one-party government of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and start of the democratization process. The main face of the revolution was now world famous Vaclav Havel. He was elected the President of Czechoslovakia.